Beginning Readers - Fluency

Corrective Reading

Program description

Corrective Reading is a literacy program designed to improve decoding, fluency, and comprehension skills for students in third grade or higher who are reading below their grade level. Corrective Reading can be implemented in small groups for 45-minutes four to five times a week. Assessments determine the level at which each student is initially placed. Students are expected to complete all lessons within a level before advancing to the next level. All lessons involve a scripted, direct instructional approach to implement the series of targeted exercises. The decoding component has four levels containing between 65 and 125 lessons each. The comprehension component consists of four levels with between  65 and 140 lessons. 

Student population

Corrective Reading has been examined in grades three and five among suburban and urban settings. White and Black students as well as a blended proportion of students who were or were not eligible for Free and Reduced price lunch participated in the evaluated studies.

Current evidence

Corrective Reading has been rated as Strong by Evidence for ESSA ( for students in grades three and five. The What Works Clearinghouse reported Potentially Positive Effects for Alphabetics and Fluency, but No Discernible Evidence for building Comprehension skills in 3rd grade ( or for improving Alphabetics, Fluency, and Comprehension in 5th grade (

For more information:

Torgesen, J., Schirm, A., Castner, L., Vartivarian, S., Mansfield, W., Myers, D., … Institute of Education Sciences (ED), W., DC. (2007). National Assessment of Title I. Final Report. Volume II: Closing the Reading Gap--Findings from a Randomized Trial of Four Reading Interventions for Striving Readers. NCEE 2008-4013. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from eric. (National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance).