Beginning Readers

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LIPS) 

Program description

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LIPS)® is a 1-1 or small-group tutoring program that focuses on phonological awareness and decoding practice. The program aids students in developing the lip, tongue, and mouth actions needed to produce specific sounds, direct instruction in letter patterns, sight words, and context clues in reading books with phonetically controlled vocabulary. LiPS® is intended for between 20 and 50 minutes per day of implementation with typical readers in kindergarten through grade 3 or with struggling readers. Both print and computer-supported reading activities are included in the program.

Student population

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® has been examined in Kindergarten 1st, 2nd, and 4th grades with Black and White students at-risk for reading disability across socio-economic strata.

Current evidence

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® has been rated as Strong by Evidence for ESSA ( for students in grades K-2nd grades. The What Works Clearinghouse rated LiPS® as having mixed effects for alphabetics and potentially positive effects for comprehension in 1st grade ( and 4th grade the WWC rated LiPS® as having potentially positive effects on Alphabetics and Reading Fluency, and no discernable effects on Comprehension (

For more information

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Herron, J., & Lindamood, P. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches. Annals of Dyslexia, 60(1), 40–56.

Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(1), 33.

Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., & Rashotte, C.A. (1997). The prevention and remediation of severe reading disabilities: Keeping the end in mind. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 217-234.