These articles have been grouped roughly by category. Some of them, of course, address more than one of the categories, and these articles have been placed in more than one section. Others are simply placed in the category that is consistent with their primary focus, although they may have content related to other areas as well.

Phonemic Awareness

Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Adams, M.J., Foorman, B.R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998,Spring/Summer). The elusive phoneme: Why phonemic awareness is so important and how to help children develop it. American Educator, 22, 18- 29.

Gillon, G.T. (2004). Phonological awareness: From research to practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, A. M. (1989). The alphabetic principle and learning to read. In D. Shankweiler & I. Y. Liberman (Eds.), Phonology and Reading Disability: Solving the Reading Puzzle (pp.1-33). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Torgesen, J.K., & Mathes, P. (2000). A Basic Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Teaching Phonological Awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.


Beck, I.L. (2006). Making sense of phonics: The hows and whys. New York: Guilford Press.

Ehri, L. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. In R. Stainthorp and P. Tomlinson (Eds.) Learning and teaching reading. London: British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II.

Ehri, L.C. (1998). Grapheme-phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English. In J. Metsala & L. Ehri (Eds.). Word recognition in beginning reading. (pp. 3-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Henry, M. (2003). Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding & spelling instruction. Baltimore: Paul Brookes.

Iversen, S., & Tunmer, W. E. (1993) Phonological processing skills and the reading recovery program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 112-126.

Juel, C., & Minden-Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 458-492.

Moats, L.C. (2000). Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers. Baltimore: Brookes.

Moats, L.C. (2006). How spelling supports reading: And why it is more regular and predictable than you may think. American Educator, Winter, 12-24.


Ehri, L. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. In R. Stainthorp and P. Tomlinson (Eds.) Learning and teaching reading. London: British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II.

Ehri, L.C. (1998). Grapheme-phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English. In J. Metsala & L. Ehri (Eds.). Word recognition in beginning reading. (pp. 3-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Fuchs, L. Fuchs, D., & Hosp., M. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239-256.

Hudson, R.F., Lane, H. B, & Pullen, P. C. (2004). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, August.

Kuhn, M.R. & Stahl, S.A. (2000). CIERA Report #2-008. Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Retrieved February 2, 2006, from

Meyer, M., & Felton, R. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 283-306

Osborn, J., & Lehr, F. (2003). A focus on fluency: Research-based practices in early reading series. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.

Raskinski, T. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency and comprehension. NY: Scholastic.

Schwanenflugel, P., Hamilton, A., Wisenbaker, J., Kuhn, M., & Stahl, S. (2004). Becoming a fluent reader: Reading skill and prosodic features in the oral reading of young readers, Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 119-129.

Therrien, W. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: A meta-analysis. Journal of Remedial and Special Education, 25(4), 252-261.

Torgesen, J.K. & Hudson, R. (2006). Reading fluency: critical issues for struggling readers. In S.J. Samuels and A. Farstrup (Eds.). Reading fluency: The forgotten dimension of reading success. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Torgesen, J.K., Rashotte, C.A., Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain. Parkton, MD: YorkPress.

Wolf, M & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001), Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientfic Studies of Reading, 5(3), 211-23.


Baumann, J., & Kame'enui, E. (Eds.). (2004). Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice. NY: The Guilford Press.

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G. & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.

Blachowicz, C., & Fisher, P. (2002). Teaching vocabulary in all classrooms. NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.

Cunningham, P.M. (1998). The multisyallabic word dilemma. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 14(2), 189-218.

Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2006). Vocabulary Handbook. Berkeley, CA: CORE.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brooks.

Hiebert, E.H. & Kamil, M.L. (Eds.). (2005). Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

Hirsch, E. (2003). Reading comprehension requires knowledge of words and the world: Scientific insights into the fourth-grade slump and nation's stagnant comprehension scores. American Educator, Spring, 10-29.

Nagy, W. (2002). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension, Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Stahl, S., & Kapinus, B. (2001). Word power: What every educator needs to know about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

Stahl, S., & Nagy, W. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Beck, I. Et al. (1998). Getting at the meaning. American Educator, Summer, 66-71.

Beck, I., McKeown, M., Hamilton, R., & Kucan, L. (1997). Questioning the author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Beers, K. (2003). When kids can't read: What teachers can do: A guide for teachers 6-12. Porstmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Block, C., & Pressley, M. (2001). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. NY: Guilford.

Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M., (Eds.). (2002). Improving comprehension Instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Brown, R. (2002). Scaffolding two worlds: Self-directed comprehension instruction for middle schoolers. In C.C. Block and M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension Instruction Research-based Best Practices (pp. 337-350). New York: Guilford Press.

Buck, J., Torgesen, T., & Schatschneider, C. (YEAR). Predicting FCAT SSS Scores using prior performance on the FCAT-SSS, FCAT-NRT, and SAT9. FCRR Technical Report #4.

Fisher, J., Schumaker, J., & Deshler, D. (in press). Improving the reading comprehension of at-risk adolescents. In M. Pressley & C. Block (Eds.), Strategies for increasing reading comprehension. New York: Guilford

Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. NY: Stenhouse.

Keene, E., & Zimmermann, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader's workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

RAND. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Retrieved February 16, 2006, from

Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy, Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360-407.

Tovani, C. (2000). I read it, but I don't get it: Comprehension strategies for adolescent readers. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Reading Research

Cunningham, A.E. & Stanovich, K.E. (1998). What reading does for the mind. American Educator, 22(Spring/Summer), 8-15.

Gough, P. B. (1996). How children learn to read and why they fail. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 3-20.

Kamil, M.L., Mosenthal, P.B., Pearson, P.D., & Barr, R. (2000). Handbook of Reading Research. Vol. III. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McCardle, P. & Chhabra, V. (Eds.). (2004). The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore: Brooks.

National Institute for Literacy. (2005, Fall). What is scientifically based research? A guide for teachers. Retrieved January 26, 2006, from

National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. NIH Publication No. 00-4754. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Rayner, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2, 31-74.

Share, D. L., & Stanovich, K. E. (1995). Cognitive processes in early reading development: A model of acquisition and individual differences. Issues in Education: Contributions from Educational Psychology, 1, 1-57.

Stanovich, K.E. & Stanovich, P.J. (2003). Using research and reason in education: How teachers can use scientifically based research to make curricular & instructional decisions. Jessup, MD: National Institute for Literacy. Retrieved January, 26, 2006, from

Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407.

Stanovich, K.E., & Stanovich, P.J. (1995) How research might inform the debate about early reading acquisition. Journal of Research in Reading, 18, 87-105.

Principles of Effective Instruction and Intervention

Allinder, R., Dunse, L., Brunken, C., & Obermiller-Krolinkowski, H. (2001). Improving fluency in at-risk readers and students with learning disabilities. Journal of Remedial and Special Education, 22, 48-54.

Armbruster, B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Kindergarten through grade 3. Jessup, MD: NICHD.

Borasi, R., & Siegel, M. (2000). Reading counts: Expanding the role of reading in mathematics classrooms. NY: Teachers College Press.

Carnine, D.W., Silbert, J., Kame'enui, E.J., Tarver, S.G., & Jungjohann, K. (2006). Teaching struggling and at-risk readers: A direct instruction approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Carr, K., Buchanan, D., Wentz, J., Weiss, M., & Brant, K. (2001). Not just for the primary grades: A bibliography of picture books for secondary content teachers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45, 146-153.

Deshler, D., Schumaker, B., Lenz, K., Bulgren, J., Hock, M., Knight, J., & Ehren, B. (2001). Ensuring content-area learning by secondary students with learning materials that work. Nebrasksa: Brookline Books.

Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M.T., & Moody, S.W. (1999). Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65, 399-415.

Foorman, B. (Ed.). (2003). Preventing and remediating reading difficulties. Baltimore, MD: York Press

Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Fletcher, J.M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 37-55.

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Mathes, P.G., & Simmons, D.C. (1997).
Peer-assisted learning strategies: Making classrooms more responsive to academic diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 34, 174-206.

Gaskins, I.W., Ehri, L.C., Cress, C., O’Hara, C., & Donnelly, K. (1997). Procedures for word learning: Making discoveries about words. The Reading Teacher. 50, 312-327.

Guthrie, J., & Davis, M. (2003). Motivating struggling readers in middle school through an engagement model of classroom practice. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 59-85.

Guthrie, J., & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In Kamil, M., Mosenthal, P., Pearson, P., & Barr, R. (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of reading research, Vol. III. (pp. 403-422).

Hiebert, E. H. (1999). Text matters in learning to read. The Reading Teacher, 52, (6) 552-566.

Honig, B., Diamond, L., Gutlohn, L., & Mahler, J. (2000). Teaching reading: Sourcebook for kindergarten through eighth grade (Core Literacy Training Series). Academic Therapy Publications.

International Reading Association. (2006). Standards for middle and high school literacy coaches. Newark, DE: Author.

Jobe, R., & Dayton-Sakari, M. (2002). Info-kids: How to use nonfiction to turn reluctant readers into enthusiastic learners. Ontario, Canada: Pembroke Publishers Limited.

Kamil, M. (2003). Adolescents and literacy: Reading for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Mastropieri, M., Scruggs, T., & Graetz, J. (2003). Reading comprehension instruction for secondary students: Challenges for struggling students and teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26(2), 103-116.

Moats, L.C. (1999). Teaching reading is rocket science. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Teachers.

Moats, L.C. (1998) Teaching decoding. American Educator, Summer, 42-51.

Moats, L. (2004). Efficacy of a structured, systematic language curriculum for adolescent poor readers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 20, 145-159.

Moats, L. (2001). When older kids can't read. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 36-46.

Palincsar, A.S. & Brown, A.L. (1984) Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 117-175.

Pressley, M. (1998). Reading instruction that works: the case for balanced teaching. NY: The Guilford Press.

Pressley, M., Wharton-Mc Donald, R., Allington, R., Block, C. C., Morrow, L., Tracey, D., Baker, K., Brooks, G., Cronin, J., Nelson, E., & Woo, D. (2001). A study of effective first-grade instruction. Scientific Study of Reading, 5, 35-58.

Rayner, K., Foorman, B. R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. (2002) How should reading be taught? Scientific American, March, 85-91.

Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf Publishing.

Snow, C., Burns, M., & Griffin, P.(eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Vaughn, S., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2004). Research-based methods of reading instruction: Grades K-3. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Vaughn, S.R., Moody, S.W., & Shuman, J.S. (1998). Broken Promises: Reading Instruction the Resource Room. Exceptional Children, 64, 211-225.

Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, M., & Hampston, J. (1999). Literacy instruction in nine first grade classrooms: Teacher characteristics and Student Achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 99, 101-128.

Development of Emergent Literacy

Ball, E.W., & Blackman B.A., (1988). Phoneme segmentation training: Effect on reading readiness. Annals of Dyslexia, 38.

Cunningham, A.E., (1990). Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 429-444.

Lonigan, C.J., Burgess, S.R., & Anthony, J.L. (2000). Development of emergent literacy and early reading skills in preschool children: Evidence from a latent-variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 36(5), 596-613.

Lundberg, I., Frost, J., & Petersen, O.P., (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly.

Martin, M.E., & Byrne, B., (2002). Teaching children to recognize rhyme does not directly promote phonemic awareness. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 561-572

National Research Council. (2001). Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers.

Neuman, S.B., & Dickinson, D.K., (EDS.). (2002). Handbook of Early Literacy Research. New York: Guilford Press.

Roberts, T.A. (2003). Effects of alphabet-letter instruction on young children's word recognition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 31-51.

Senechal, M., LeFevre, J.A., Smith-Chant, B.L. & Colton, K.V., (2001). On refining theoretical models of emergent literacy: The Role of Empirical Evidence. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 5, 439-460.

Whitehurst, G.J. & Lonigan, C.J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69, 335-357.

Parent Resources

Hall, S.L. & Moats, L.C. (2002). Parenting a struggling reader: A guide to diagnosing and finding help for your child's reading difficulties. New York: Broadway Books.

Hall, S.L. & Moats, L.C. (1999) Straight Talk about Reading. Chicago, Ill. Contemporary Books.

National Research Council. (1999). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children's reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

The Partnership for Reading. (2000). Put reading first: Helping your child learn to read: A parent guide: Preschool through grade 3. MD: National Institute for Literacy.

Zimmermann, S., & Hutchings, C., (2003). 7 keys to comprehension: How to help your kids read it and get it! New York: Three Rivers Press.